The living part of the tooth is the pulp. The pulp is the nerve and blood vessels of the tooth. When a cavity (decay) goes deep enough into a tooth, or if a tooth is traumatized, the pulp can die. This will eventually lead to pain and/or infection. To alleviate these problems, the pulp is removed from the tooth using various tiny instruments. Once the pulp is removed, the canal (or tunnel) that the pulp once occupied is now cleaned and shaped and disinfected. Once this is done a root canal filling material is placed in the canal. This material is warmed and condensed within the root so the canal is sealed from the tip of the root to the base of the tooth. This is what root canal treatment is. The treatment is done while the tooth is anesthetized (frozen), so the patient doesn’t feel a thing. Once the root canal treatment is finished the tooth is permanently restored with a filling and/or crown.